Saturday, May 14, 2022

GHG emissions charts for 228 countries or territories, 1970-2019

Because the Paris Agreement mandates all countries to use the GWP-100 values of the IPCC’s Fifth Assessment Report (“AR5”) to estimate the CO₂-equivalents of their GHG emissions, I made auto-generated charts with AR5-equivalent GHG values.

GHG emissions charts for 228 countries or territories, 1970–2019

https://bit.ly/3svmVHt

In the Excel file, there are two chart sheets:
  • I-a Sector-PivotChart: GHG emissions of the country by sector
  • II-a Subsector-PivotChart: GHG emissions of the country by subsector

  • You can choose the country of your interest by clicking the button in the upper left corner of each chart.

    The following chart is drawn modifying the same Excel file.

    Cumulative GHG emissions of top 50 countries and others, 1970–2019 (GtCO₂-eq)


    Data source:
    Minx, J. C. et al. (2022). A comprehensive and synthetic dataset for global, regional and national greenhouse gas emissions by sector 1970–2018 with an extension to 2019 [Data set]. Zenodo. doi:10.5281/zenodo.6483002

    Monday, May 2, 2022

    Reflections on Water-Food-Ecosystem Nexus after recent reassessment of Planetary Boundaries

    The planetary boundaries are the nine environmental indices (climate change, biosphere integrity [biodiversity], land-system change [land use], freshwater use, biogeochemical flows, ocean acidification, atmospheric aerosol loading, stratospheric ozone depletion, novel entities), which can help determine how close to or already out of safety limits for humans and ecosystems as a result of human acitivities. It first became famous by a paper published in the journal Nature in 2009 (Rockström et al., 2009), and was updated by a Science paper in 2015 (Steffen et al., 2015) reflecting six years of scientific development and environmental changes. By 2015, 4 out of 9 indices exceeded the global safety limits (climate change, biosphere integrity, land-system change, biogeochemical flow).

    However, in 2022, two important papers were published one after another that even two (wholly or partially) of the remaining four indices exceeded the global safety limits. Persson et al. (2022) were the first to assess the level of ‘increase in novel entities’, which previously had an index due to insufficient data. The authors believe that the production and release of new substances (chemical pollutants, plastics, etc.), which were not present in the geological era, are increasing at a tremendous rate in quantity and types, exceeding society's ability to evaluate and track safety, so that the index has increased. It was judged that the global danger limit was breached.

    And the paper of Wang-Erlandsson et al. (2022), published at the end of April, evaluates that even the level of freshwater use, which until now was considered to be no problem, has exceeded the safe range. The use of blue water (rivers, lakes, reservoirs, & renewable groundwater stores), which has been the standard for evaluating the level of freshwater use so far, is 2,600 km³ year⁻¹, which is within the allowable range (4,600 km³ year⁻¹). However, blue water is not the only fresh water. Much more fresh water is green water (terrestrial precipitation, evaporation, & soil moisture). According to the 6th Assessment Report of the IPCC Working Group II, currently 19,000 km³ of soil moisture is used annually by agriculture and forestry in the world (IPCC, 2022). It is more than 7 times that of blue water.

    However, the sustainability of green water is completely different from that of blue water. Wang-Erlandsson et al. (2002) selected root-zone soil moisture as a representative indicator of green water. Now (i.es., the 1850–2014 average compared to the mid-Holocene; the 1900–2014 average compared to pre-industrial times), the mean value of the root-zone soil moisture was outside the range of 5~95% of the soil moisture content compared to the mid-Holocene (first 500 years since about 6,000 ago) and pre-industrial times (from 1850 to 1899). That is, they have become significantly wetter or drier than the stable range of soil moisture that has historically supported terrestrial ecosystems. In particular, compared to pre-industrial levels, the average soil moisture deviated completely from the 5–95% range since 1980s for wetter areas and since 1920s for drier areas. The following figure is a comprehensive chart newly drawn by the Stockholm Resilience Center (SRC) that reflects the latest evaluation results.

    https://bit.ly/3s7SgQp

    The IPCC expects these changes to worsen in the future. Current trends (similar to the SSP2-4.5 scenario in which the world implements current climate policies as shown in the following table) suggest a ‘2°C warming relative to pre-industrial levels’ (or 1.8–2.5°C range) likely to materialize in the 2041–2060s.). Then, the population at risk of drought damage due to lack of soil moisture increases by 370% (30–790%), and the duration of soil moisture drought becomes 2-3 times longer than now (IPCC, 2022).

    The SRC summarized the findings of Wang-Erlandsson et al. (2022) and explained that green water is particularly closely linked with land use, biodiversity and climate change. Although it is still a rather unfamiliar concept, it can be expected that the crisis of green water will have a negative impact on the future of food (e.g. agriculture based on land use) and ecosystem (inextricably linked with biodiversity). It raises an urgent research topic for researchers studying the Water-Food-Ecosystem Nexus.

    References

    IPCC. (2021). Climate Change 2021: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Sixth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press. (In Press).

    IPCC. (2022). Climate Change 2022: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Working Group II contribution to the Sixth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press. (In Press).

    Persson, L., Carney Almroth, B. M., Collins, C. D., Cornell, S., de Wit, C. A., Diamond, M. L., Fantke, P., Hassellöv, M., MacLeod, M., Ryberg, M. W., Søgaard Jørgensen, P., Villarrubia-Gómez, P., Wang, Z., & Hauschild, M. Z. (2022). Outside the Safe Operating Space of the Planetary Boundary for Novel Entities. Environmental Science & Technology, 56(3), 1510–1521.

    Rockström, J., Steffen, W., Noone, K., Persson, Å., Chapin, F. S., Lambin, E. F., Lenton, T. M., Scheffer, M., Folke, C., Schellnhuber, H. J., Nykvist, B., de Wit, C. A., Hughes, T., van der Leeuw, S., Rodhe, H., Sörlin, S., Snyder, P. K., Costanza, R., Svedin, U., Falkenmark, M., Karlberg, L., Corell, R. W., Fabry, V. J., Hansen, J., Walker, B., Liverman, D., Richardson, K., Crutzen, P., & Foley, J. A. (2009). A safe operating space for humanity. Nature, 461(7263), 472–475.

    Steffen, W., Richardson, K., Rockström, J., Cornell, S. E., Fetzer, I., Bennett, E. M., Biggs, R., Carpenter, S. R., de Vries, W., de Wit, C. A., Folke, C., Gerten, D., Heinke, J., Mace, G. M., Persson, L. M., Ramanathan, V., Reyers, B., & Sörlin, S. (2015). Planetary boundaries: Guiding human development on a changing planet. Science, 347(6223), 1259855.

    Wang-Erlandsson, L., Tobian, A., van der Ent, R. J., Fetzer, I., te Wierik, S., Porkka, M., Staal, A., Jaramillo, F., Dahlmann, H., Singh, C., Greve, P., Gerten, D., Keys, P. W., Gleeson, T., Cornell, S. E., Steffen, W., Bai, X., & Rockström, J. (2022). A planetary boundary for green water. Nature Reviews Earth & Environment. https://doi.org/10.1038/s43017-022-00287-8

    Thursday, June 3, 2021

    Cost of Energy Comparison, Including Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE)—2021 Update


    There must be numerous ways to compare cost of technologies for generation, storage and delivery of energy. The most widely used measure for this purpose has been Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE). LCOE is also known as LEC (Levelized Energy Cost), LUEC (Levelized Unit Energy Cost), or busbar cost. LRMC (Long-Run Marginal Cost) is a similar but different measure, although it is often presented by LCOE due to LCOE’s characteristics being a proxy of LRMC (Roughly put: LCOE = capital cost + LRMC; LRMC = fuel + carbon + variable O&M + fixed O&M).
    I have been updating this list since April 2010. In this new list for 2021, I tried to include a variety of cost comparison metrics, while continuing to provide extensive references for LCOE.
    However, let me admit that there are many critics of (or alternatives to) using LCOE as a means of comparing the economics of electricity generation technology options. The three most notable examples of them:

    Heptonstall, P. J., & Gross, R. J. K. (2021). A systematic review of the costs and impacts of integrating variable renewables into power grids. Nature Energy6(1), 72–83. [Full-text at https://doi.org/10.1038/s41560-020-00695-4];
    Horowitz, K. A. W., Palmintier, B., Mather, B., & Denholm, P. (2018). Distribution system costs associated with the deployment of photovoltaic systems. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews90, 420–433. [Full-text at https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2018.03.080];
    Schmalensee, R. (2016). The Performance of U.S. Wind and Solar Generators. The Energy Journal37(1), 123–151. [Full-text at http://dx.doi.org/10.5547/01956574.37.1.rsch]

    I. Cost of Every Power Technology

    Alberici, S. et al. (2014). Subsidies and Costs of EU energy. (DESNL14583). Ecofys. [Full-text at http://j.mp/EU-LCOE] | Component cost breakdown for each country at http://j.mp/EU-LCOE-Component]


    The Australian Academy of Technological Sciences and Engineering. (2011). New Power Cost Comparisons: Levelised Cost of Electricity for a Range of New Power Generating Technologies. The Australian Academy of Technological Sciences and Engineering (ATSE) [Full-text at http://j.mp/l1Sk1j]

    Australian Energy Market Operator. (2017). South Australian Fuel and Technology Report. Australian Energy Market Operator (AEMO). [Full-text at http://j.mp/AEMO_LCOE]

    Bedilion, R. (2013). Program on Technology Innovation: Integrated Generation Technology Options 2012. Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). [Full-text at http://j.mp/EPRI2012]

    Black & Veatch. (2012). Cost and Performance Data for Power Generation Technologies: Prepared for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Black & Veatch Corporation. [Full-text at http://j.mp/BV_LCOE]

    BloombergNEF. (2020). 2020 Sustainable Energy in America Factbook. Bloomberg New Energy Finance (BloombergNEF) & the Business Council for Sustainable Energy. [Full-text at https://j.mp/BNEF-LCOE-2020]

    Bureau of Resources and Energy Economics (BREE). (2013). Australian Energy Technology Assessment (AETA) 2013 Model Update. Bureau of Resources and Energy Economics (BREE). [Full-text at http://j.mp/AETA2013]

    Channell, J., Jansen, H. R., Syme, A. R., Savvantidou, S., Morse, E. L., Yuen, A. (2013). Energy Darwinism: The Evolution of the Energy Industry. Citi GPS: Global Perspectives & Solutions. Citigroup. [Full-text at http://j.mp/Citi_LCOE]

    Climatescope. (2019). Emerging Markets Outlook 2019: Energy transition in the world’s fastest growing economies. Bloomberg New Energy Finance (BloombergNEF). [Full-text and data https://j.mp/Climatescope-2019]

    Cole, W. et al. (2020). 2020 Standard Scenarios Report: A U.S. Electricity Sector Outlook. (NREL/TP-6A20-77442). National Renewable Energy Laboratory. [Website for the “Annual Technology Baseline (ATB)” at https://atb.nrel.gov/; Full-text at http://j.mp/ATB-2020; Excel spreadsheet at http://j.mp/ATB-2020-XLS]

    Committee on America’s Energy Future. (2009). Americas Energy Future: Technology and Transformation. The National Academies Press. [Full-text at http://bit.ly/8ZsYVM]

    Committee on Climate Change. (2015). Power Sector Scenarios for the Fifth Carbon Budget. Committee on Climate Change. [Full-text at http://j.mp/UK_LCOE; Data at http://j.mp/UK_LCOE_XLS]

    Committee on Determinants of Market Adoption of Advanced Energy Efficiency and Clean Energy Technologies. (2016). The Power of Change: Innovation for Development and Deployment of Increasingly Clean Electric Power Technologies. The National Academies Press. [Full-text at http://j.mp/US_LCOE]

    Danish Energy Agency. (2015). Levelized Cost of Energy Calculator. Danish Energy Agency. [Full-text at http://j.mp/LCOE_Calculator; Spreadsheet at http://j.mp/LCOE_Calculator_XLSM]

    Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (BEIS). (2020). Electricity Generation Costs 2020. Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy. [Full-text at http://j.mp/BEIS-2020; Spreadsheet at http://j.mp/BEIS-2020-XLS]

    Dowling, P., & Gray, M. (2016). End of the Load for Coal and Gas?: Challenging Power Technology Assumptions. Carbon Tracker. [Full-text at http://j.mp/CarbonTracker_LCOE]

    E3M-Lab. (2016). EU Reference Scenario 2016: Energy, transport and GHG emissions Trends to 2050. European Commission. [Full-text at http://j.mp/EU_Reference_LCOE]

    Electric Power Research Institute. (2016). Australian Power Generation Technology Report. CO2CRC. [Full-text at http://j.mp/Australia_LCOE]

    Electricity Generation Costs Verification Working Group (Japan). (2015). Electricity Generation Costs Verification Report for the Long-Term Energy Supply and Demand Outlook Subcommittee (長期エネルギー需給見通し小委員会に対する 発電コスト等の検証に関する報告). Agency for Natural Resources and Energy. [Full-text at http://j.mp/Japan_LCOE_2015; Power plant specifications at http://j.mp/Japan_Specs_2015]

    Energy and Environment Conference, & Electricity Generation Costs Verification Committee (Japan). (2011). Electricity Generation Costs Verification Report. National Policy Unit, Cabinet Secretariat. [Full-text at http://j.mp/Japan_LCOE; Summary chart at http://j.mp/Japan_LCOE_Summary; Excel spreadsheet at http://j.mp/Japan_LCOE_XLS]

    ENTSO-E, & ENTSOG. (2019). TYNDP 2020 Scenario Report. ENTSOG (European Network of Transmission System Operators for Gas) & ENTSO-E (European Network of Transmission System Operators).[Full-text at https://j.mp/TYNDP2020]
    Note: TYNDPs = Ten-Year Network Development Plans

    European Commission. (2008). Commission staff working document accompanying the communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions - Second Strategic Energy Review: an EU energy security and solidarity action plan - Energy Sources, Production Costs and Performance of Technologies for Power Generation, Heating and Transport. SEC(2008) 2872. European Commission. [Full-text at http://j.mp/9BST2r]

    Finkel, A. (2017). Independent Review into the Future Security of the National Electricity Market: Blueprint for the Future. Commonwealth of Australia. [Full-text at http://j.mp/Finkel_Review]

    Freese, B., Clemmer, S., Martinez, C., & Nogee, A. (2011). A Risky Proposition: The Financial Hazards of New Investments in Coal Plants. Union of Concerned Scientists. [Full-text at: http://j.mp/Risky_Proposition; Appendix A (LCOE) at http://j.mp/UCS_LCOE]

    Fürstenwerth, D. (2014). Calculator of Levelized Cost of Electricity for Power Generation Technologies. Agora Energiewende. [Excel spreadsheet at http://j.mp/Agora_LCOE]

    Google.org. (2011). The Impact of Clean Energy Innovation: Examining the Impact of Clean Energy Innovation on the United States Energy System and Economy. [Full-text at http://j.mp/Google_CEI]

    Graham, P., Hayward, J., Foster, J. & Havas, L. (2021). GenCost 2020–21. Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO). [Full-text at http://j.mp/Australia-LCOE]

    Greenstone, M., & Looney, A. (2011). A Strategy for America’s Energy Future: Illuminating Energy’s Full Costs. The Brookings Institution. [Full-text at http://j.mp/mqEXUQ]

    Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. (2014). Working Group III Contribution to the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report, Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate Change. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. [Full-text at http://mitigation2014.org (Find in Chapter 7: Energy Systems.)]

    International Energy Agency. (2014). The Power of Transformation: Wind, Sun and the Economics of Flexible Power Systems. IEA Publications. [Full-text at http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264208032-en]

    International Energy Agency. (2015). Energy Technology Perspectives 2015: Mobilising Innovation to Accelerate Climate Action. IEA Publications. [Full-text at http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/20792603 | Executive Summary | Tracking Clean Energy Progress 2015]

    International Energy Agency. (2016). Energy Technology Perspectives 2016: Towards Sustainable Urban Energy Systems. IEA Publications. [Full-text at http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/energy_tech-2016-en | Executive Summary | Tracking Clean Energy Progress 2016]

    International Energy Agency. (2017). Energy Technology Perspectives 2017: Catalysing Energy Technology Transformations. IEA Publications. [Full-text at http://doi.org/10.1787/energy_tech-2017-en | Executive Summary | Tracking Clean Energy Progress 2017]


    International Energy Agency. (2017). World Energy Investment 2017. IEA Publications. [Full-text at http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264277854-en]

    International Energy Agency (IEA), & International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA). (2017). Perspectives for the Energy Transition: Investment Needs for a Low-Carbon Energy System. Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft und Energie (BMWi; Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy). [Full-text at http://j.mp/IEA_IRENA_2DS]

    International Energy Agency, & Nuclear Energy Agency. (2015). Projected Costs of Generating Electricity - 2015 Edition. OECD Publications. [Full-text at http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/cost_electricity-2015-en; Corrigendum at http://j.mp/IEA2015LCOE_Corrigendum; Executive summary at http://j.mp/IEA2015LCOE_ES | Presentation slides at http://j.mp/IEA2015LCOE_PPT]

    International Energy Agency (IEA), & Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA). (2020). Projected Costs of Generating Electricity—2020 Edition. OECD Publishing. [Full-text at http://j.mp/IEA-LCOE-2020]

    International Energy Agency (IEA). (2020). World Energy Model Documentation: 2020 Version. International Energy Agency (IEA). [Full-text at http://j.mp/WEM-2020]

    International Energy Agency (IEA). (2021). Net Zero by 2050: A Roadmap for the Global Energy Sector. IEA Publications. [Full-text at http://j.mp/NZE-LCOE]

    Irlam, L. (2015). The Costs of CCS and Other Low-Carbon Technologies in the United States: 2015 Update. Global Carbon Capture and Storage Institute. [Full-text at http://j.mp/CCS_Costs]

    Joskow, P. L. (2011). Comparing the Costs of Intermittent and Dispatchable Electricity Generating Technologies. EUI Working Paper RSCAS (Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies), 2011/45. European University Institute. [Full-text at http://j.mp/Joskow_EUI]

    Kaplan, S. (2008). Power Plants: Characteristics and Costs. CRS Report for Congress, RL34746. Congressional Research Service. [Full-text at http://bit.ly/d7M0Ja]

    Küchler, S., & Meyer, B. (2012). 
    The full costs of power generation: A comparison of subsidies and societal cost of renewable and conventional energy sources. Greenpeace Energy eG; Bundesverband WindEnergie (BWE; German Wind Energy Association). [Full-text at http://j.mp/Full_Costs]


    Lazard Ltd. (2021). Lazard’s Levelized Cost of Energy Analysis—Version 15.0. Lazard Ltd. [Full-text at https://j.mp/Lazard-LCOE-v15]

    Leidos, Inc. (2020). Distributed Generation, Battery Storage, and Combined Heat and Power System Characteristics and Costs in the Buildings and Industrial Sectors. U.S. Energy Information Administration. [Full-text at https://j.mp/DG-LCOE]

    Liebreich, M., Zindler, E., Tringas, T., Gurung, A., & von Bismarck, M. (2011). Green Investing 2011: Reducing the Cost of Financing. World Economic Forum. [Full-text at http://j.mp/BNEF-WEF-2011]

    Logan, J. et al. (2017). Electricity Generation Baseline Report. (NREL/TP-6A20-67645). National Renewable Energy Laboratory. [Full-text at http://j.mp/EG_Baseline_LCOE]

    Matsuo, Y., Yamaguchi, Y., & Murakami, T. (2013). Historical Trends in Japans Long-Term Power Generation Costs by Source: Assessed by Using Corporate Financial Statements. The Institute of Energy Economics, Japan (IEEJ). [Full-text at http://j.mp/JP_Gen_Cost]


    Mott MacDonald. (2011). Costs of low-carbon generation technologies. Committee on Climate Change. [Full-text at http://j.mp/Mott-MacDonald]

    National Renewable Energy Laboratory. (2013). Transparent Cost Database: Generation. National Renewable Energy Laboratory. [Data at http://en.openei.org/apps/TCDB/]

    National Renewable Energy Laboratory. (2016). Levelized Cost of Energy Calculator. National Renewable Energy Laboratory. [Website at http://j.mp/LCOE_NREL]

    Neff, B. (2019). Estimated Cost of New Utility-Scale Generation in California: 2018 Update. (CEC-200-2019-005). California Energy Commission. [Full-text at http://j.mp/CEC-LCOE]

    Nitsch, J. et al. (2012). Langfristszenarien und Strategien für den Ausbau der Erneuerbaren Energien in Deutschland bei Berücksichtigung der Entwicklung in Europa und Global (Long-term scenarios and strategies for the deployment of renewable energies in Germany in view of European and global developments). Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety. [Full-text at http://j.mp/German_LCOE; Technical annex at http://j.mp/German_LCOE_Annex; Data at http://j.mp/German_LCOE_XLS]

    Parsons Brinckerhoff. (2013). Electricity Generation Cost Model - 2013 Update of Non-Renewable Technologies. Department for Energy and Climate Change. [Full-text at http://j.mp/UK_NonRE_LCOE]

    Paul Scherrer Institut. (2010). Sustainable Electricity: Wishful thinking or near-term reality? Energie-Spiegel: Facts for the Energy Decisions of Tomorrow20. Paul Scherrer Institut. [Full-text at http://j.mp/Energie-Spiegel]

    Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI). (2017). Potentials, Costs and Environmental Assessment of Electricity Generation Technologies. Bundesamt für Energie (BFE; Swiss Federal Office of Energy [SFOE]). [Full-text at http://j.mp/Swiss_LCOE; Synthesis at http://j.mp/Swiss_LCOE_Synthesis]

    Pourreza, S. et al. (2014). Evolving Economics of Power and Alternative Energy. Citi Research. [Full-text at http://j.mp/Citi_LCOE_2014]

    Pöyry. (2013). Technology Supply Curves for Low-Carbon Power Generation: A Report to the Committee on Climate Change. Pöyry Management Consulting. [Full-text at http://j.mp/LowCarbonLCOE]

    Ram, M., Child, M., Aghahosseini, A., Bogdanov, D., & Poleva, A. (2017). Comparing Electricity Production Costs of Renewables to Fossil and Nuclear Power Plants in G20 Countries. Greenpeace. [Full-text at http://j.mp/Greenpeace_LCOE]

    Rhodes, J. D. et al. (2016). New U.S. Power Costs: by County, with Environmental Externalities—A Geographically Resolved Method to Estimate Levelized Power Plant Costs with Environmental Externalities. "The Full Cost of Electricity (FCe-)" initiative. Energy Institute, The University of Texas at Austin. [Full-text at: http://j.mp/US_Power_LCOE; Calculator at http://j.mp/US_Power_LCOE_Calc]

    Schröder, A., Kunz, F., Meiss, J., Mendelevitch, R., & von Hirschhausen, C. (2013). Current and prospective costs of electricity generation until 2050. (Data Documentation, No. 68). Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW Berlin; the German Institute for Economic Research). [Full-text at http://j.mp/DIW_LCOE]

    Siemens Wind Power. (2014). SCOE – Society’s costs of electricity: How society should find its optimal energy mix. Siemens AG. [Full-text at http://j.mp/Siemens_SCOE]

    Skone, T. J., Littlefield, J., Cooney, G., & Marriott, J. (2013). Power Generation Technology Comparison from a Life Cycle Perspective. (DOE/NETL-2012/1567). National Energy Technology Laboratory. [Full-text at http://j.mp/NETL_LCOE]

    Stacy, T. F., & Taylor, G. S. (2019). The Levelized Cost of Electricity from Existing Generation Resources. Institute for Energy Research. [Full-text at https://j.mp/IER-LCOE]

    Timilsina, G. R. (2020). Demystifying the Costs of Electricity Generation Technologies. Policy Research Working Paper, 9303. World Bank. [Full-text at https://j.mp/WorldBank-LCOE]

    U.S. Department of Energy. (2015). Quadrennial Technology Review: An Assessment of Energy Technologies and Research Opportunities. U.S. Department of Energy. [Full-text at http://j.mp/QTR_2015]

    U.S. Energy Information Administration. (2021). Levelized Costs of New Generation Resources in the Annual Energy Outlook 2021. U.S. Energy Information Administration. [Full-text at http://j.mp/AEO2021-LCOE]

    Veiga, M. M., Álvarez, P. F., Moraleda, M. F.-M., & Kleinsorge, A. (2013). Study on Cost and Business Comparison of Renewable vs. Non-renewable Technologies (RE-COST). IEA - Renewable Energy Technology Deployment (RETD). [Full-text at http://j.mp/RE-COST]

    VGB PowerTech. (2015). Levelised Cost of Electricity 2015. VGB PowerTech Service. [Full-text at http://j.mp/VGB_LCOE]

    World Energy Council, & Bloomberg New Energy Finance. (2013). World Energy Perspective: Cost of Energy Technologies. World Energy Council. [Full-text at http://j.mp/WEC_LCOE]

    II. Cost of Renewable Power

    II-1. Renewable Power Cost Comparison

    Artelys, Armines, & Energies Demain. (2016). A 100% Renewable Electricity Mix? Analysis and Optimisation: Exploring the Boundaries of Renewable Power generation in France by 2050. Agence de l’environnement et de la maîtrise de l’énergie (ADEME; French Environment and Energy Management Agency). [Full-text at http://j.mp/France_LCOE]

    Black & Veatch Corporation. (2010). Renewable Energy Transmission Initiative Phase 2B: Final Report. RETI Stakeholder Steering Committee. [Full-text at http://j.mp/8ZbLPl]

    De Jager, D. et al. (2011). Financing Renewable Energy in the European Energy Market. (PECPNL084659). European Commission. [Full-text at http://j.mp/EU_RE_LCOE]

    E3: Energy + Environmental Economics. (2015). CPUC RPS Calculator. California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC). [XLSM spreadsheet at http://j.mp/CPUC_RPS_LCOE]

    European Commission. (2020). Clean Energy Transition – Technologies and Innovations Report (CETTIR). (SWD(2020) 953 final). European Commission. [Full-text at https://j.mp/LCOE-EU]

    Frankfurt School-UNEP Collaborating Centre, & BloombergNEF. (2020). Global Trends in Renewable Energy Investment 2020. Frankfurt School of Finance & Management. [Full-text at https://j.mp/RE-Investment-2020]

    Gorman, W. (2020). The Rise of the Hybrid Power Plant. (DE-AC02-05CH11231). Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. [Slides at http://j.mp/Hybrid-LCOE]

    Hearps, P., & McConnell, D. (2011). Renewable Energy Technology Cost Review. Melbourne Energy Institute. [Full-text at http://j.mp/iYoa6E]

    IEA-ETSAP, & IRENA. (2013). Technology Briefs (of 10 Renewable Energy Technologies). International Renewable Energy Agency. [Full-text at http://j.mp/ETSAP_IRENA]


    Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. (2012). IPCC Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation. Cambridge University Press. [Full-text at http://j.mp/SRREN]

    International Energy Agency. (2019). Renewables 2019: Analysis and forecast to 2024. IEA Publications. [Full-text at https://doi.org/10.1787/25202774]

    International Renewable Energy Agency. (2014). REmap 2030: A Renewable Energy Roadmap, June 2014. IRENA Secretariat. [Full-text at http://j.mp/REmap2030]

    International Renewable Energy Agency. (2012). Renewable Energy Technologies: Cost Analysis Series - Volume 1: Power Sector. IRENA Secretariat. [Full-text: http://j.mp/IRENA_Windhttp://j.mp/IRENA_PVhttp://j.mp/IRENA_Hydrohttp://j.mp/IRENA_CSPhttp://j.mp/IRENA_Biomass]

    International Renewable Energy Agency. (2016). The Power to Change: Solar and Wind Cost Reduction Potential to 2025. IRENA Secretariat. [Full-text at http://j.mp/Solar_Wind]

    IRENA. (2019). Global Energy Transformation: A Roadmap to 2050 (2019 edition). International Renewable Energy Agency. [Full-text at https://j.mp/REmap-2050]

    IRENA. (2021). Renewable Power Generation Costs in 2020. International Renewable Energy Agency. [Full-text at https://j.mp/IRENA-Costs-2020]

    Jacobson, M. Z., Delucchi, M. A., Cameron, M. A., Coughlin, S. J., Hay, C. A., Manogaran, I. P., Shu, Y., & von Krauland, A.-K. (2019). Impacts of Green New Deal Energy Plans on Grid Stability, Costs, Jobs, Health, and Climate in 143 Countries. One Earth, 1(4), 449–463. [Full-text at https://j.mp/3zhGwgE; Excel spreadshet at https://j.mp/3FRx85U]

    Jacobson, M. Z., von Krauland, A.-K., Coughlin, S. J., Palmer, F. C., & Smith, M. M. (2022). Zero air pollution and zero carbon from all energy at low cost and without blackouts in variable weather throughout the U.S. with 100% wind-water-solar and storage. Renewable Energy, 184, 430–442. [Full-text at https://j.mp/3JCcMQs; Excel spreadsheet at https://j.mp/3qMqUOc]

    Kost, C. et al. (2018). Levelized Cost of Electricity – Renewable Energy Technologies. Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE. [Full-text at http://j.mp/LCOE_Fraunhofer]

    Ove Arup & Partners Ltd. (2011). Review of the generation costs and deployment potential of renewable electricity technologies in the UK. Department of Energy and Climate Change. [Full-text ahttp://j.mp/UK_Renewable_LCOE]

    Ram, M. et al. (2017). Global Energy System based on 100% Renewable Energy—Power Sector. Lappeenranta University of Technology & Energy Watch Group. [Full-text at http://j.mp/LUT_EWG_LCOE]

    REN21. (2019). Renewables 2019 Global Status Report. REN21 Secretariat. [Full-text at https://j.mp/REN2019GSR]

    Sustainable Energy Advantage, LLC. (2011). Cost of Renewable Energy Spreadsheet Tool (CREST). National Renewable Energy Laboratory. [Excel files at http://j.mp/CREST_LCOE]

    Syed, A. et al. (2014). Asia Pacific Renewable Energy Assessment. Bureau of Resources and Energy Economics (BREE). [Full-text at http://j.mp/Asia-Pacific_RE_LCOE]

    Tesniere, L. et al. (2017). Mapping the cost of capital for wind and solar energy in South Eastern European Member States. Ecofys. [Full-text at http://j.mp/SE_EU_LCOE]

    資源エネルギー庁. (2020). 第63回 調達価格等算定委員会: 太陽光発電について & 風力発電について. 経済産業省. [Full-text at 太陽光発電 (solar PV) | 風力発電 wind power)].

    II-2. Biomass Power

    LCICG. (2012). Technology Innovation Needs Assessment (TINA): Bioenergy - Summary Report. Low Carbon Innovation Co-ordination Group (LCICG). [Full-text at http://j.mp/LCICG_Bioenergy]

    II-3. Geothermal Power

    Limberger, J. et al. (2014). Assessing the prospective resource base for enhanced geothermal systems in Europe. Geothermal Energy Science2. 55–71. [Full-text at http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/gtes-2-55-2014]

    National Energy Technology Laboratory. (2012). Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Geothermal Technology Assessment. (NETL/DOE-2011/1531). National Energy Technology Laboratory. [Full-text at http://j.mp/NETL_Geothermal]

    U.S. Department of Energy. (2019). GeoVision: Harnessing the Heat Beneath Our Feet. (DOE/EE–1306). U.S. Department of Energy. [Full-text at https://j.mp/Geothermal-LCOE]

    II-4. Hydro Power

    European Small Hydropower Association. (2012). Small Hydropower Roadmap: Condensed research data for EU-27. European Small Hydropower Association. [Full-text at http://j.mp/Small_Hydro_LCOE; Data at http://streammap.esha.be/19.0.html]

    Kurup, P. et al. (2018). Analysis of Supply Chains and Advanced Manufacturing of Small Hydropower Systems. (NREL/TP-6A20-71511). Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center. [Full-text at http://j.mp/Hydro_LCOE]

    National Energy Technology Laboratory. (2012). Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Hydropower Technology Assessment. (NETL/DOE-2011/1519). National Energy Technology Laboratory. [Full-text at http://j.mp/NETL_Hydro]

    II-5. Marine (Wave, Tide) Power

    Badcock-Broe, A. et al. (2014). Wave and Tidal Energy Market Deployment Strategy for Europe. Strategic Initiative for Ocean Energy (SI OCEAN). [Full-text at http://j.mp/Wave_Tide_LCOE]

    Carbon Trust, University of Edinburgh, & JRC. (2013). Ocean Energy: Cost of Energy and Cost Reduction Opportunities. Strategic Initiative for Ocean Energy (SI OCEAN). [Full-text at http://j.mp/Ocean_LCOE]

    Commission Staff. (2014). Impact Assessment: Accompanying the document Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions - Ocean Energy: Action needed to deliver on the potential of ocean energy by 2020 and beyond. (SWD(2014) 13 final). European Commission. [Full-text at http://j.mp/OceanE_LCOE]

    LCICG. (2012). Technology Innovation Needs Assessment (TINA): Marine Energy - Summary Report. Low Carbon Innovation Co-ordination Group (LCICG). [Full-text at http://j.mp/LCICG_Marine]

    Magagna, D., & Uihlein, A. (2015). 2014 JRC Ocean Energy Status Report: Technology, market and economic aspects of ocean energy in Europe. Joint Research Centre, European Commission. [Full-text at http://j.mp/EU_Ocean_LCOE]

    Neary, V. S. et al. (2014). Methodology for Design and Economic Analysis of Marine Energy Conversion (MEC) Technologies. Sandia National Laboratories. [Full-text at http://j.mp/Marine_LCOE]

    Noble, D. R. et al. (2021). Advanced Design Tools for Ocean Energy Systems Innovation, Development and Deployment: Feasibility and cost-benefit analysis. DTOceanPlus. [Full-text at http://j.mp/Ocean-LCOE]

    II-6. Solar Photovoltaic (and Thermal) Power

    Al Matin, M. A. et al. (2019). LCOE Analysis for Grid-Connected PV Systems of Utility Scale Across Selected ASEAN Countries. Economic Research Institute for ASEAN and East Asia (ERIA). [Full-text at http://j.mp/ASEAN-PV]

    Australian Energy Council. (2020). Solar Report. (Quarterly). Australian Energy Council. [Full-text at http://j.mp/Australia_PV_Quarterly]

    Baker, E., Fowlie, M., Lemoine, D., & Reynolds, S. S. (2013). The Economics of Solar Electricity. Annual Review of Resource Economics5, 387-426. [Full-text at http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-resource-091912-151843]

    Barbose, G., Darghouth, N., O’Shaughnessy, E., & Forrester, S. (2021). Tracking the Sun: Pricing and Design Trends for Distributed Photovoltaic Systems in the United States — 2021 Edition. (DE-AC02-05CH11231). Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. [Full-text at https://j.mp/US-PV-2021; Excel spreadsheet at https://j.mp/US-PV-2021-XLS]

    Bolinger, M., Seel, J., Warner, C., & Robson, D. (2021). Utility-Scale Solar, 2021 Edition: Empirical Trends in Deployment, Technology, Cost, Performance, PPA Pricing, and Value in the United States. (DE-AC02-05CH11231). Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. [Full-text at https://j.mp/Utility-PV-2021; Excel spreadsheet at https://j.mp/Utility-PV-2021-XLS]

    Breyer, C., & Gerlach, A. (2013). Global overview on grid-parity. Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications21(1), 121–136. [Full-text at http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pip.1254]

    Briano, J. I., Báez, M. J., & Morales, R. M. (2016). PV Grid Parity Monitor (Commercial, Residential, and Utility Sectors). Creara. [Full-text at http://j.mp/PV_GridParity]

    Bronski, P., Creyts, J., Crowdis, M., Doig, S., Glassmire, J., Guccione, L, Lilienthal, P., Mandel, J., Rader, B., Seif, D., Tocco, H., & Touati, H. (2015). The Economics of Load Defection: How Grid-Connected Solar-Plus-Battery Systems Will Compete with Traditional Electric Service, Why It Matters, and Possible Paths Forward. Rocky Mountain Institute. [Full-text at http://j.mp/Solar_Battery_Cost]

    Darling, S. B., You, F., Veselka, T., & Velosa, A. (2011). Assumptions and the levelized cost of energy for photovoltaics. Energy & Environmental Science4, 3133–3139. [Full-text at http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c0ee00698j]

    Denholm, P., O’Connell, M., Brinkman, G., & Jorgenson, J. (2015). Overgeneration from Solar Energy in California: A Field Guide to the Duck Chart. (NREL/TP-6A20-65023). National Renewable Energy Laboratory. [Full-text at http://j.mp/CA_PV_LCOE]

    Feldman, D. et al. (2021). U.S. Solar Photovoltaic System and Energy Storage Cost Benchmark: Q1 2020. (NREL/TP-6A20-77324). National Renewable Energy Laboratory. [Full-text at http://j.mp/US-PV-LCOE]

    Fraunhofer ISE. (2021). Photovoltaics Report, 30 June 2021. Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems, ISE. [Full-text at http://j.mp/PV-Report]

    IEA PVPS. (2016). Trends 2016 in Photovoltaic Applications: Survey Report of Selected IEA Countries between 1992 and 2015. (IEA PVPS T1-30:2016). IEA Photovoltaic Power System Programme. [Full-text at http://j.mp/PVPS2016]

    IRENA. (2017). IRENA Cost and Competitiveness Indicators: Rooftop Solar PV. International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA). [Full-text at http://j.mp/Rooftop_PV]

    IRENA. (2019). Future of Solar Photovoltaic: Deployment, investment, technology, grid integration and socio-economic aspects. International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA). [Full-text at http://j.mp/IRENA-PV]

    IRENA. (2021). Offshore Renewables: An Action Agenda for Deployment. International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA). [Full-text at https://j.mp/Offshore-LCOE]

    Jäger-Waldau, A. (2019). PV Status Report 2019. (EUR 29938 EN). Publications Office of the European Union. [Full-text at http://j.mp/JRC-PV]

    Jones-Albertus, R., Feldman, D., Fu, R., Horowitz, K., & Woodhouse, M. (2015). Technology Advances Needed for Photovoltaics to Achieve Widespread Grid Price Parity. Department of Energy. [Full-text at http://j.mp/PV_Grid_Parity]

    Kimura, K. (2019). Solar Power Generation Costs in Japan: Current Status and Future Outlook. Renewable Energy Institute. [Full-text at https://j.mp/Japan-PV]

    KPMG. (2015). UK Solar beyond Subsidy: The Transition. Renewable Energy Association. [Full-text at http://j.mp/UK_PV_LCOE]

    Mendelsohn, M., Kreycik, C., Bird, L., Schwabe, P., & Cory, K. (2012). The Impact of Financial Structure on the Cost of Solar Energy. (NREL/TP-6A20-53086). [Full-text at http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy12osti/53086.pdf]

    National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). (2012). SunShot Vision Study. (DOE/GO-102012-3037). U.S. Department of Energy. [Full-text at http://www1.eere.energy.gov/solar/pdfs/47927.pdf]

    Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE). (2016). The SunShot Initiative’s 2030 Goal: 3¢ per Kilowatt Hour for Solar Electricity. (DOE/EE-1501). U.S. Department of Energy. [Full-text at http://j.mp/SunShot2030LCOE; Presentation slides at http://j.mp/SunShot2030LCOE_PPTX]

    Philipps, S. P., Kost, C., & Schlegl, T. (2014). Up-to-Date Levelised Cost of Electricity of Photovoltaics: Background from Fraunhofer ISE Relating to IPCC WGIII 5th Assessment Report, Final Draft, September 2014. Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE (Institut für Solare Energiesysteme). [Full-text at http://j.mp/LCOE_PV]

    Reichelstein, S., & Yorston, M. (2012). Solar-LCOE Calculator. [Excel spreadsheet at http://j.mp/Reichelstein_LCOE; Developed for the following paper: Reichelstein, S., & Yorston, M. (2013). The prospects for cost competitive solar PV power. Energy Policy55, 117-127. [Full-text at http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2012.11.003]

    Rutovitz, J. et al. (2014). Breaking the solar gridlock: Potential benefits of installing concentrating solar thermal power at constrained locations in the NEM. Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS (University of Technology, Sydney). [Full-text at http://j.mp/CSP_LCOE_AU]

    Schmalensee, R. et al. (2015). The Future of Solar Energy: An Interdisciplinary MIT Study. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. [Full-text at http://j.mp/MIT_Solar_LCOE]

    Shah, V., & Booream-Phelps, J. (2015). Crossing the Chasm: Solar Grid Parity in a Low Oil Price Era. Deutsche Bank Securities Inc. [Full-text at http://j.mp/Solar_Grid_Parity]

    Smith, B. L. et al. (2021). Photovoltaic (PV) Module Technologies: 2020 Benchmark Costs and Technology Evolution Framework Results. (NREL/TP-7A40-78173). National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). [Full-text at https://j.mp/PV-Techs]

    SunPower Corporation. (2011). Grid-Competitive Residential and Commercial Fully Automated PV Systems Technology. (DE-FC136-07GO17043). U.S. Department of Energy. [Full-text at http://j.mp/SunPower_LCOE]

    Tjengdrawira, C., Richter, M., & Theologitis, I.-T. (2016). Best Practice Guidelines for PV Cost Calculation: Accounting for Technical Risks and Assumptions in PV LCOE. Solar Bankability Consortium. [Full-text at http://j.mp/PV_Risks_LCOE]

    Tsuchida, B. et al. (2015). Comparative Generation Costs of Utility-Scale and Residential-Scale PV in Xcel Energy Colorado’s Service Area. The Brattle Group. [Full-text at http://j.mp/PV_PV_LCOE]

    Vartiainen, E., Masson, G., & Breyer, C. (2015). PV LCOE in Europe 2014–30. Secretariat of the European Photovoltaic Technology Platform. [Full-text at http://j.mp/PV_LCOE_EU]

    Vartiainen, E., Masson, G., & Breyer, C. (2017). The True Competitiveness of Solar PV: A European Case Study. Secretariat of the European Technology and Innovation Platform for Photovoltaics. [Full-text at http://j.mp/EU_PV_LCOE]

    Wirth, H. (2020). Recent Facts about Photovoltaics in Germany. Fraunhofer ISE. [Full-text at http://j.mp/GermanPV_LCOE]

    Woodhouse, M. et al. (2016). On the Path to SunShot: The Role of Advancements in Solar Photovoltaic Efficiency, Reliability, and Costs. (NREL/TP-6A20-65872). National Renewable Energy Laboratory. [Full-text at http://j.mp/PV_Cost]

    Zinaman, O., &  Darghouth, N. (2020). Distributed Solar Utility Tariff and Revenue Impact Analysis: A Guidebook for International Practitioners. United States Agency for International Development (USAID) & National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). [Full-text at https://j.mp/Distributed-Solar]

    II-7. Solar Thermal Power/Heating/Cooling

    National Energy Technology Laboratory. (2012). Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Solar Thermal Technology Assessment. (NETL/DOE-2012/1532). National Energy Technology Laboratory. [Full-text at http://j.mp/NETL_Solar]

    Stadelmann, M., Frisari, G., Boyd, R., & Feás, J. (2014). The Role of Public Finance in CSP: Background and Approach to Measure its Effectiveness. Climate Policy Initiative. [Full-text at http://j.mp/CSP_LCOE]

    Weiss, W., & Spörk-Dür, M. (2018). Solar Heat Worldwide: Global Market Development and Trends in 2017—Detailed Market Figures 2016. IEA Solar Heating & Cooling Programme. [Full-text at http://j.mp/SHC_2018]

    II-8. Wind Power

    Fraile, D. et al. (2021). Getting fit for 55 and set for 2050: Electrifying Europe with wind energy. ETIPWind (European Technology and Innovation Platform on Wind Energy) and WindEurope. [Full-text at https://j.mp/Wind-LCOE]

    Hand, M. M. (Ed). (2018). IEA Wind TCP Task 26—Wind Technology, Cost, and Performance Trends in Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Norway, Sweden, the European Union, and the United States: 20082016. (NREL/TP-6A20-71844). National Renewable Energy Laboratory. [Full-text at http://j.mp/IEA-Wind-LCOE]

    Lacal Arántegui, R., & Serrano González, J. (2015). 2014 JRC Wind Status Report: Technology, Market and Economic Aspects of Wind Energy in Europe. Publications Office of the European Union. [Full-text at http://j.mp/Wind_LCOE]

    LCICG. (2012). Technology Innovation Needs Assessment (TINA): Offshore Wind Power - Summary Report. Low Carbon Innovation Co-ordination Group (LCICG). [Full-text at http://j.mp/LCICG_Wind]

    Moné, C., Hand, M., Bolinger, M., Rand, J., Heimiller, D., & Ho, J. (2017). 2015 Cost of Wind Energy Review. (NREL/TP-6A20-66861). National Renewable Energy Laboratory. [Full-text at http://j.mp/Wind_LCOE_2015]

    Musial, W., Beiter, P., & Nunemaker, J. (2020). Cost of Floating Offshore Wind Energy Using New England Aqua Ventus Concrete Semisubmersible Technology. (NREL/TP-5000-75618). National Renewable Energy Laboratory. [Full-text at https://j.mp/Floating-Wind-LCOE]

    Musial, W. et al. (2021). Offshore Wind Market Report: 2021 Edition. (DOE/GO-102021-5614). U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).  [Full-text at https://j.mp/Offshore-Wind-LCOE; Excel spreadsheet at https://j.mp/Offshore-Wind-LCOE-XLS]

    National Energy Technology Laboratory. (2012). Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Wind Technology Assessment (NETL/DOE-2012/1536). National Energy Technology Laboratory. [Full-text at http://j.mp/NETL_Wind]

    Offshore Renewable Energy (ORE) Catapult. (2015). Cost Reduction Monitoring Framework: Summary Report to the Offshore Wind Programme Board. Offshore Wind Programme Board, the Crown Estate. [Full-text at http://j.mp/UK_Offshore_LCOE; Qualitative summary (by DNV GL) at http://j.mp/UK_Offshore_Qualitative; Quantitative summary (by Deloitte) at
    http://j.mp/UK_Offshore_Quantitative]

    Orrell, A., Kazimierczuk, K., & Sheridan, L. (2021). Distributed Wind Market Report: 2021 Edition. (DOE/GO-102021-5620). U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). 

    Sherman, P., Chen, X., & McElroy, M. (2020). Offshore wind: An opportunity for cost-competitive decarbonization of China’s energy economy. Science Advances, 6(8), eaax9571. [Full-text at https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aax9571]

    Tegen, S., Lantz, E.,Hand, M., Maples, B.,Smith, A., & Schwabe, P. (2013). 2011 Cost of Wind Energy Review. (NREL/TP-5000-56266). National Renewable Energy Laboratory. [Full-text at http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy13osti/56266.pdf]

    Willow, C., & Valpy, B. (2015). Approaches to Cost-Reduction in Offshore Wind: A Report for the Committee on Climate Change. BVG Associates. [Full-text at http://j.mp/Offshore_Wind_LCOE]

    Wiser, R. et al. (2015). Wind Vision: A New Era for Wind Power in the United States. (DOE/GO-102015-4557). U.S. Department of Energy. [Full-text at http://j.mp/Wind_Vision | Scenario Viewer]

    Wiser, R. et al. (2016). Forecasting Wind Energy Costs and Cost Drivers: The Views of the World’s Leading Experts. (LBNL- 1005717). Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. [Full-text at http://j.mp/Wind_Cost]

    Wiser, R., & Bolinger, M. (2019). 2018 Wind Technologies Market Report. U.S. Department of Energy. [Full-text at http://j.mp/2018_Wind; Excel spreadsheet at http://j.mp/2018_Wind_XLS]

    Wiser, R., Bolinger, M., et al. (2021). Land-Based Wind Market Report: 2021 Edition. (DOE/GO-102021-5611). U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). [Full-text at https://j.mp/Onshore-Wind-LCOE; Excel spreadsheet at https://j.mp/Onshore-Wind-LCOE-XLS]

    Wiser, R. et al. (2020). Wind Energy Technology Data Update: 2020 Edition. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. [Full-text at http://j.mp/2020-Wind; Excel spreadsheet at http://j.mp/2020-Wind-XLS]

    World Bank Group. (2021). Key Factors for Successful Development of Offshore Wind in Emerging Markets. ESMAP, World Bank. [Full-text at https://j.mp/ESMAP-Wind]

    III. Cost of Fossil Energy Power

    III-1. Fossil Power Cost Comparison

    Finkenrath, M. (2011). Cost and Performance of Carbon Dioxide Capture from Power Generation. IEA Energy PapersN° 2011/05. [Full-text at http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5kgggn8wk05l-en]

    Fout, T. et al. (2015). Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants. Volume 1a: Bituminous Coal (PC) and Natural Gas to Electricity - Revision 3. National Energy Technology Laboratory. [Full-text at http://j.mp/PC_NGCC_COE]

    International Energy Agency. (2013). Technology Roadmap: Carbon Capture and Storage. IEA Publications. [Full-text at http://j.mp/IEA_CCS_LCOE]

    National Energy Technology Laboratory. (2010). Life Cycle Analysis: Power Studies Compilation Report (DOE/NETL-2010/1419). National Energy Technology Laboratory. [Full-text at http://j.mp/laPsP6]

    Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards. (2018). Economic Impact Analysis for the Review of Standards of Performance for Greenhouse Gas Emissions from New, Modified, and Reconstructed Stationary Sources: Electric Utility Generating Units. (EPA 452/R-18-005). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. [Full-text at http://j.mp/EPA_LCOE]

    Pöyry Management Consulting, & Element Energy. (2015). Potential CCS Cost Reduction Mechanisms. Committee on Climate Change. [Full-text at http://j.mp/CCS_LCOE_UK]

    UK Carbon Capture and Storage Cost Reduction Task Force. (2013). CCS Cost Reduction Taskforce: Final Report. Department of Energy & Climate Change. [Full-text at http://j.mp/UK_CCS_LCOE]

    WorleyParsons, & Schlumberger. (2011). Economic Assessment of Carbon Capture and Storage Technologies: 2011 Update. The Global CCS Institute. [Full-text at http://j.mp/CCS_LCOE]

    III-2. Coal Power

    Epstein, P. R., Buonocore, J. J., Eckerle, K., Hendryx, M., Stout III, B. M., Heinberg, R., Clapp, R. W., May, B., Reinhart, N. L., Ahern, M. M., Doshi, S. K., & Glustrom, L. (2011). Full cost accounting for the life cycle of coal. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences1219, 73-98. [Full-text at http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.2010.05890.x]

    IEAGHG. (2014). CO2 Capture at Coal Based Power and Hydrogen Plants. IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme (IEAGHG). [Full-text at http://j.mp/IEAGHG_LCOE]

    Lako, P. (2010). Coal-Fired Power. Technology Brief, E01. International Energy Agency. [Full-text at http://j.mp/ETSAP_Coal_LCOE]

    National Energy Technology Laboratory. (2012). Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Pulverized Coal and Biomass Co-firing Technology Assessment (NETL/DOE-2012/1537). National Energy Technology Laboratory. [Full-text at http://j.mp/Cofiring]

    National Energy Technology Laboratory. (2012). Updated Costs (June 2011 Basis) for Selected Bituminous Baseline Cases (NETL/DOE-341/082312). National Energy Technology Laboratory. [Full-text at http://j.mp/Bituminous]

    III-3. Natural Gas Power

    National Energy Technology Laboratory. (2012). Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Natural Gas Technology Assessment (NETL/DOE-2012/1539). National Energy Technology Laboratory. [Full-text at http://j.mp/NG_Power]

    Seebregts, A. J. (2010). Gas-Fired Power. Technology Brief, E02. International Energy Agency. [Full-text at http://j.mp/ETSAP_Gas_LCOE

    IV. Cost of Nuclear Power


    Congressional Budget Office. (2008). Nuclear Power’s Role in Generating Electricity. Congressional Budget Office. [Full-text at http://j.mp/CBO_Atom]

    Cour des comptes. (2012). The Costs of the Nuclear Power Sector: Thematic Public Report. Cour des comptes (Court of Audit). [Full-text at http://j.mp/FR_Atom_Costs]

    De Roo, G., & Parsons, J. E. (2011). A methodology for calculating the levelized cost of electricity in nuclear power systems with fuel recycling. Energy Economics33(5), 826-839. doi: 10.1016/j.eneco.2011.01.008. [Full-text at http://web.mit.edu/ceepr/www/publications/reprints/Reprint_233_WC.pdf]

    Deutch, J. M., Forsberg, C. W., Kadak, A. C., Kazimi, M. S., Moniz, E. J., Parsons, J. E., Yangbo, D., & Pierpoint, L. (2009).Update of the MIT 2003 Future of Nuclear Power Study. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. [Full-text at http://j.mp/MIT_Atom_LCOE] 

    DGA Consulting, & Carisway. (2016). Quantitative Viability Analysis of Electricity Generation from Nuclear Fuels. Nuclear Fuel Cycle Royal Commission. [Full-text at http://j.mp/Australia_Atom_LCOE]

    D’haeseleer, W. D. (2013). Synthesis on the Economics of Nuclear Energy. (ENER/2012/NUCL/SI2.643067). Directorate-General for Energy (DG Enery), European Commission. [Full-text at 
    http://j.mp/ENER_Atom]

    Energy Options Network. (2017). What Will Advanced Nuclear Power Plants Cost? A Standardized Cost Analysis of Advanced Nuclear Technologies in Commercial Development. Energy Innovation Reform Project. [Full-text at http://j.mp/Nuclear_LCOE]

    Harris, G., Heptonstall, P., Gross, R., & Handley, D. (2012). Cost Estimates for Nuclear Power in the UK. (ICEPT/WP/2012/014). Imperial College Centre for Energy Policy and Technology (ICEPT). [Full-text at http://j.mp/UK_Atom_LCOE]

    Hogue, M. T. (2012). A Review of the Costs of Nuclear Power Generation. Bureau of Economic and Business Research, University of Utah. [Full-text at http://j.mp/Atom_LCOE_Utah]

    International Atomic Energy Agency. (2014). Climate Change and Nuclear Power 2014. International Atomic Energy Agency. [Full-text at 
    http://j.mp/CC_Atom]

    LCICG. (2013). Technology Innovation Needs Assessment (TINA): Nuclear Fission - Summary Report. Low Carbon Innovation Co-ordination Group (LCICG). [Full-text at 
    http://j.mp/LCICG_Atom]

    Lecomte, M., Mario, N., & Vignon, D. (2014). A Worldwide Review of the Cost of Nuclear Power. NucAdvisor. [Full-text at http://j.mp/NucAdvisor_LCOE]

    National Audit Office. (2016). Nuclear Power in the UK. National Audit Office. [Full-text at http://j.mp/2016_UK_LCOE]

    National Audit Office. (2017). Hinkley Point C. National Audit Office. [Full-text at http://j.mp/UK_Nuclear_Cost]

    National Energy Technology Laboratory. (2012). Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Nuclear Technology Assessment (NETL/DOE-2011/1502). National Energy Technology Laboratory. [Full-text at http://j.mp/NETL_Atom]

    Nuclear Energy Agency. (2011). Current Status, Technical Feasibility and Economics of Small Nuclear Reactors. OECD/NEA Publishing. [Full-text at http://j.mp/SMR_LUEC]

    Nuclear Energy Agency. (2012). The Economics of Long-term Operation of Nuclear Power Plants. OECD/NEA Publishing. [Full-text at http://j.mp/NEA_LCOE]

    Nuclear Energy Agency. (2015). Nuclear New Build: Insights into Financing and Project Management. OECD/NEA Publishing. [Full-text at http://j.mp/Atom_New_LCOE]

    Nuclear Energy Institute. (2016). Status and Outlook for Nuclear Energy in the United States. Nuclear Energy Institute. [Full-text at http://j.mp/NEI_LCOE]

    Nuclear Energy Institute. (2018). Nuclear Costs in Context. Nuclear Energy Institute. [Full-text at http://j.mp/NEI_LCOE_2018]

    Rosner, R., Klavans, J., & Olofin, S. (2015). Nuclear Fuel Cycle Cost Calculator. Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. [Full-text and data at http://j.mp/Atom_LCOE]

    Severance, C. A. (2009). Business Risks and Costs of New Nuclear Power. Center for American Progress. [Full-text at http://j.mp/CAP_Atom_LCOE]

    SFEN. (2018). French Nuclear Power in the European Energy System. Société Française d'Énergie Nucléaire (SFEN; French Nuclear Energy Society). [Full-text at http://j.mp/SFEN-LCOE]

    Simbolotti, G. (2010). Nuclear Power. Technology Brief, E03. International Energy Agency. [Full-text at 
    http://j.mp/ETSAP_Atom_LCOE]

    Szilard, R. et al. (2017). Economic and Market Challenges Facing the U.S. Nuclear Commercial Fleet—Cost and Revenue Study. (DE-AC07-05ID14517). Idaho National Laboratory. [Full-text at http://j.mp/INL_Nuclear_LCOE]

    Task Force on the Future of Nuclear Power. (2016). Secretary of Energy Advisory Board—Report of the Task Force on the Future of Nuclear Power. U.S. Department of Energy. [Full-text at http://j.mp/SEAB_Nuclear_TF]

    Thomas, S. (2013). The Economics of Nuclear Power. Evaluation einer Hypothetischen "NUklearen Renaissance" (EHNUR). [Full-text at 
    http://j.mp/EHNUR_Atom]

    Weimar, M. R. et al. (2021). Techno-economic Assessment for Generation III+ Small Modular Reactor Deployments in the Pacific Northwest. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. [Full-text at http://j.mp/SMR-LCOE]

    World Nuclear Association. (2017). Nuclear Power Economics and Project Structuring - 2017 Edition. World Nuclear Association. [Full-text at http://j.mp/Nuclear_Economics]

    WSP and Parsons Brinckerhoff. (2016). Quantitative Analysis and Initial Business Case - Establishing a Nuclear Power Plant and Systems in South Australia. Nuclear Fuel Cycle Royal Commission. [Full-text at http://j.mp/SA_Atom_LCOE]

    V. Cost of Hydrogen-Carried Energy

    BEIS. (2021). Hydrogen Production Costs 2021. Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (BEIS). [Full-text at https://j.mp/LCOH2021]

    Burke, A., & Sinha, A. K. (2020). Technology, Sustainability, and Marketing of Battery Electric and Hydrogen Fuel Cell Medium-Duty and Heavy-Duty Trucks and Buses in 2020–2040. National Center for Sustainable Transportation. [Full-text at https://j.mp/Trucks-Buses]

    Campbell, R. J. (2020). Hydrogen in Electricity’s Future. CRS Report, R46436. Congressional Research Service. [Full-text at https://j.mp/LCOH-CRS]

    Christensen, A. (2020). Assessment of Hydrogen Production Costs from Electrolysis: United States and Europe. International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT). [Full-text at http://j.mp/H2-Cost]

    Cihlar, J. et al. (2020). Hydrogen Generation in Europe: Overview of Key Costs and Benefits. Publications Office of the European Union. [Full-text at https://j.mp/LCOH-EU]

    Flis, G., & Deutsch, M. (2021). 12 Insights on Hydrogen. Agora Energiewende & Agora Industry. [Full-text at https://j.mp/Hydrogen-Insights]

    Gandolf, A., Patel, A., Vigna, M. D., Pombeiro, M., & Pidoux, M. (2020). Green Hydrogen: The next transformational driver of the Utilities industry. Goldman Sachs. [Full-text at https://j.mp/LCOH-GS]

    Hinkley, J. et al. (2016). Cost Assessment of Hydrogen Production from PV and Electrolysis. Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO). [Full-text at http://j.mp/H2_PV]

    Hydrogen Council, & McKinsey & Company. (2021). Hydrogen Insights: A perspective on hydrogen investment, market development and cost competitiveness. Hydrogen Council.
    [Full-text at http://j.mp/LCOH-2021]

    International Energy Agency. (2015). Technology Roadmap: Hydrogen and Fuel Cells. IEA Publications. [Full-text at http://j.mp/H2_LCOE]

    IRENA. (2018). Hydrogen from Renewable Power: Technology Outlook for the Energy Transition. International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA). [Full-text at http://j.mp/LCOH_2018]

    Lazard Ltd. (2021). Lazard’s Levelized Cost of Hydrogen Analysis—Version 2.0. Lazard Ltd. [Full-text at https://j.mp/Lazard-LCOH-v2]

    Qamar Energy. (2020). Hydrogen in the GCC: A Report for the Regional Business Development Team Gulf Region. Netherlands Enterprise Agency. [Full-text at http://j.mp/LCOH-GCC]

    VI. Cost of Energy Storage

    AECOM Australia. (2015). Energy Storage Study: A Storage Market Review and Recommendations for Funding and Knowledge Sharing Priorities. Australian Renewable Energy Agency (ARENA). [Full-text at http://j.mp/ESS_LCOE]

    Akhil, A. A. et al. (2015). DOE/EPRI Electricity Storage Handbook in Collaboration with NRECA. (SAND2015-1002). Sandia National Laboratories. [Full-text at http://j.mp/ES_LCOE_2015]

    Augustine, C., & Blair, N. (2021). Energy Storage Futures Study: Storage Technology Modeling Input Data Report. (NREL/TP-5700-78694). National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). [Full-text at https://j.mp/ESS-LCOE]

    Brinsmead, T. S., Graham, P., Hayward, J., Ratnam, E. L., & Reedman, L. (2015). Future Energy Storage Trends: An Assessment of the Economic Viability, Potential Uptake and Impacts of Electrical Energy Storage on the NEM 2015–2035. (EP155039). Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO). [Full-text at http://j.mp/ESS_LCOE_CSIRO]

    Carnegie, R., Gotham, D., Nderitu, D., & Preckel, P. V. (2013). Utility Scale Energy Storage Systems: Benefits, Applications, and Technologies. State Utility Forecasting Group. [Full-text at http://j.mp/Utility_ESS]

    Cole, W. Frazier, A. W., & Augustine, C. (2021). Cost Projections for Utility-Scale Battery Storage: 2021 Update. National Renewable Energy Laboratory. [Full-text at https://j.mp/3HsdxJO]

    Gardner, P., Jones, F., Rowe, M., Nouri, A., & van de Vegte, H. (2016). E-Storage: Shifting from Cost to Value, Wind and Solar Applications. World Energy Council. [Full-text at http://j.mp/WEC_LCOS]

    International Energy Agency. (2014). Technology Roadmap: Energy Storage. IEA Publications. [Full-text at http://j.mp/IEA_ES_LCOE; Technology annex at http://j.mp/IEA_ES_Annex]

    International Renewable Energy Agency. (2012). Electricity Storage and Renewables for Island Power: A Guide for Decision Makers. International Renewable Energy Agency. [Full-text at http://j.mp/ESS_IRENA]

    International Renewable Energy Agency. (2015). Battery Storage for Renewables: Market Status and Technology Outlook. International Renewable Energy Agency. [Full-text at http://j.mp/IRENA_Battery]

    Joint Research Centre. (2011). 2011 Technology Map of the European Strategic Energy Technology Plan (SET-Plan): Technology Descriptions. Publications Office of the European Union. [Full-text at http://j.mp/JRC_ESS]

    Lazard Ltd. (2021). Lazard’s Levelized Cost of Storage Analysis—Version 7.0. Lazard Ltd. [Full-text at https://j.mp/Lazard-LCOS-v7]

    Mongird, K. et al. (2019). Energy Storage Technology and Cost Characterization Report. U.S. Department of Energy. [Full-text at https://j.mp/LCOS-DOE]

    Mongird, K. et al. (2020). 2020 Grid Energy Storage Technology Cost and Performance Assessment. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). [Full-text at http://j.mp/2020-ESS]

    Nykvist, B. & Nilsson, M. (2015). Rapidly falling costs of battery packs for electric vehicles. Nature Climate Change5, 329–332. [Full-text at http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nclimate2564; Data at http://j.mp/BEV_LCOE]

    Rastler, D. (2010). Electricity Energy Storage Technology Options: A White Paper Primer on Applications, Costs, and Benefits. Electric Power Research Institute. [Full-text at http://j.mp/EPRI_ESS]

    Schmidt, O., Melchior, S., Hawkes, A., & Staffell, I. (2019). Projecting the Future Levelized Cost of Electricity Storage Technologies. Joule3(1), 81–100. [Full-text at https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joule.2018.12.008]

    U.S. Department of Energy. (2020). Energy Storage Market Report 2020U.S. Department of Energy [Full-text at http://j.mp/US-LCOS]

    VII. Cost (LCOE or LCCE [Levelized Cost of Conserved Energy]) of Energy Efficiency or Demand Response Programs

    Alstone, P. et al. (2016). 2015 California Demand Response Potential Study: Charting California’s Demand Response Future – Interim Report on Phase 1 Results. Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. [Full-text at http://j.mp/LC_DR_California]

    Billingsley, M. A. et al. (2014). The Program Administrator Cost of Saved Energy for Utility Customer-Funded Energy Efficiency Programs. (DE-AC02-05CH11231). Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. [Full-text at http://j.mp/LBNL_LCSE]

    Hoffman, I. M. et al. (2015). The Total Cost of Saving Electricity through Utility Customer-Funded Energy Efficiency Programs: Estimates at the National, State, Sector and Program Level. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. [Full-text at http://j.mp/Saved_Electricity]

    Hoffman, I. M. et al. (2017). Trends in the Program Administrator Cost of Saving Electricity for Utility Customer-Funded Energy Efficiency Programs. (LBNL-1007009). Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. [Full-text at http://j.mp/PA_CSE]

    Hoffman, I. M. et al. (2018). The Cost of Saving Electricity Through Energy Efficiency Programs Funded by Utility Customers: 2009–2015. (DE-AC02-05CH11231). Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. [Full-text at http://j.mp/Saved_Power_LCOE]

    Hornby, R. et al. (2015). Avoided Energy Supply Costs in New England: 2015 Report. Massachusetts Energy Efficiency Advisory Council (EEAC). [Full-text at http://j.mp/New_England_Avoided_Cost]

    Molina, M. (2014). The Best Value for America’s Energy Dollar: A National Review of the Cost of Utility Energy Efficiency Programs. American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy (ACEEE). [Full-text at http://j.mp/ACEEE_LCOE]

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (2015). Demand-Side Energy Efficiency Technical Support Document. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. [Full-text at http://j.mp/LCSE_EE]